Tests suggest scientists achieved 1st in body gene editing

FILE – In this Monday, Nov. 13, 2017 file photo, Brian Madeux, starts to receive the first human gene editing therapy for Hunter syndrome, as his girlfriend, Marcie Humphrey,杭州西湖阁 left, applauds at the UCSF Benioff Childrens Hospital in Oakland, Calif. At right is nurse practitioner Jacqueline Madden. On Thursday, Feb. 7, 2019, scientists gave an update on the first effort to edit genes, or permanently change the DNA, of about a dozen adults, including Madeux, with metabolic diseases. (AP Photo/Eric Risberg)

Scientists think they have achieved the first gene editing inside the body, altering DNA in adults to try to treat a disease, although its too soon to know if this will help.

Preliminary results suggest that two men with a rare disorder now have a corrective gene at very low levels, which may not be enough to make the therapy a success.

Still, its a scientific milestone toward one day doctoring DNA to treat many diseases caused by faulty genes.

This is a first step, said Dr. Joseph Muenzer of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who helped test the treatment. Its just not potent enough.

He gave the results Thursday at a conference in Orlando, Florida, and has consulted for the therapys maker, California-based Sangamo Therapeutics. Researchers are working on a stronger version of the treatment.

Gene editing is intended as a more precise way to do gene therapy, to disable a bad gene or supply a good one thats missing. Trying it in adults to treat diseases is not controversial and the DNA changes do not pass to future generations, unlike the recent case of a Chinese scientist who claims to have edited twin girls genes when they were embryos.

Sangamos studies involve men with Hunter or Hurler syndrome, diseases caused by a missing gene that makes an enzyme to break down certain sugar compounds. Without it, sugars build up and damage organs, often killing people in their teens.

In 2017, Brian Madeux of Arizona became the first person to try it. Through an IV, he received many copies of a corrective gene and an editing tool called zinc finger nucleases to insert it into his DNA.

Results on him and seven other Hunter patients, plus three with Hurler syndrome, suggest the treatment is safe, which was the main goal of these early experiments. Three problems bronchitis, an irregular heartbeat and a hernia were deemed due to the diseases, not the treatment.

Tissue samples showed evidence of gene editing at very low levels in two Hunter patients who were given a middle dose but not in one given a low dose. Tests are expected later this year on patients who received the highest dose and on Hurler patients.

Blood tests detected slightly higher levels of the missing enzyme in a few of the Hunter patients but none of them reached normal levels. One patient had a larger increase but also showed signs that his immune system might be attacking the therapy. He was treated for that and symptoms resolved.

More encouraging results were seen in Hurler patients enzyme levels rose to normal in all three after treatment, tests on certain blood cells showed.

This is very promising for Hurler patients, said Dr. Paul Harmatz of UCSF Benioff Childrens Hospital Oakland, who presented those results.

None of the patients with either disease showed a sustained decline in urine levels of the troubling sugar compounds, though, and some other tests also did not detect intended effects of the therapy.

The key test will be stopping the patients weekly enzyme treatments to see if their bodies can now make enough of it on their own. Three have gone off treatments so far and one was recently advised to resume them because of fatigue and rising levels of the sugar compounds. The others have not been off long enough to know how they will fare.

It looks like its safe … thats a very positive sign, said one independent expert, Dr. Kiran Musunuru of the University of Pennsylvania. He called the early results promising but said its hard to be sure its doing any good until patients are studied longer.

What theyre trying to do with gene editing is very challenging, he said. Its much harder to make a correction or insert a gene than to disable one.

Dr. Tyler Reimschisel of Vanderbilt University agreed.

Its not discouraging, its just early and on a small amount of people, he said. This is definitely a novel and innovative treatment but its not clear if its going to help.

Sangamos president, Dr. Sandy Macrae, said a more potent version is being manufactured. Because the treatment seems safe, regulators recently agreed to allow teens with Hunter syndrome to join the study. The ultimate goal is to treat children at a young age, before the disease causes much damage. He said the company will wait for more results on current patients before deciding how to proceed.

Weve done something important by achieving gene editing, he said. There is a foundation to build on.

This Associated Pressserieswas produced inpartnershipwith the Howard Hughes Medical Institutes Department of Science Education. The AP is solely responsible for all content.


Quelle maquillage pour les brunes aux yeux marrons?!?

Besoin de conseils les filles quelles maquillage rend le plus sexy sur une brune au yeux marrons (teint, fard a paupiere, rouge a levre..) ?? ( pas vulgaire et pas charger) merci

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Tu peux maquiller tes yeux marrons avec une couleur amande et vert pistache aussi couleur saumon et fond de teint beige couleur peau basane et un rouge lvres beige

MA FILLE A LES MEMES YEUX AMANDESHortensia 6 years ago0Thumbs up0Thumbs downReport AbuseComment

Va te renseigner en parfumerie et une esthticienne te conseillera…VEGA 6 years ago2Thumbs up0Thumbs downReport AbuseComment

Aprs il faut voir suivant la teinte de ta peau, la forme de ton visage, et la forme de tes yeux.Madame McClair 6 years ago2Thumbs up0Thumbs downReport AbuseComment

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Quel maquillage irait pour mes yeux bruns (marron fonc)?

Question maquillage, loeil au beurre noir, ça fait pas un peu tape–loeil ?

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Can you solve the plastics problem? New prize invites ideas.

Photograph by Randy Olson, Nat Geo Image Collection

Plastic bottles fill a recycling facility in Valenzuela, Philippines.

Plastic is everywhere. It pools in the farthest reaches of the ocean and collects on the slopes of the highest mountains; researchers have found it in whales bellies and in the groundwater reserves we tap for drinking. Every day, about one megaton more is produced, enough to make almost 22 trillion water bottlesand more than 90 percent of that will never see the inside of a recycling plant.

So what should we do about it? How can we keep that plastic from drowning the planet?

Solutions to a problem as big and knotty as this one are going to require all hands on deck, says Valerie Craig, a deputy to the vice president at the National Geographic Society. Good ideas could come from anyone, anywhere. So to tap the entire worlds creativity and expertise, the National Geographic Society and Sky Ocean Ventures have put together the Ocean Plastic Innovation Challenge to source ideas from around the world about how to address plastic waste.

ROME, ITALY – APRIL 16: (L-R) Gary Knell, Syliva Earle and Jeremy Darroch attend the National Geographic Science Festival at Auditorium Parco Della Musica on April 16, 2018 in Rome, Italy. National Geographic commit $10 million to support Sky Ocean Ventures as they join forces to reduce plastics in the ocean. The collaboration will create the largest global media campaign to date focused on marine plastics. (Photo by Elisabetta Villa/Getty Images for National Geographic)

We hope we can inspire people of diverse backgrounds to utilize their own resources, to try to really solve the problems they see and reach their own goals, says Fred Michel, the head of Sky Ocean Ventures[BH1] , an impact investment arm of the London-based Sky media company. And maybewe hopetheyll come up with something amazing, something transformational.

The challenge, announced Monday, is split into three tracks, each designed to address a different part of the plastics pollution problem. Each track is eligible for prizes totaling up to $500,000 as well as the opportunity for further investments and business mentoring from Sky Ocean Ventures.

Innovators can submit their ideas until June 11. A team of judges selected by National Geographic and Sky Ocean Ventures will pick the best of the bunch by early Julyup to 10 finalists per trackand those finalists will have until November to develop their ideas further. The winners will be announced in December of 2019.

The first challenge is a call to design better packaginga fully biodegradable coffee cup, for instance; or a wrapper for energy bars that breaks down over time; or a wild card idea that addresses a different packaging problem. Teams can submit ideas for any of the three categories.

The second challenge asks for creative zero-waste business models. How, asks Craig, can businesses get their products to their customers with lessor noplastic?

The soda business is essentially a plastic bottle business, she gives as an example. But is there a way to get customers the drinks they wantwithout the bottles getting in the way? Teams can submit ideas for how to either build better business models or to use technology solutions to get products to consumers without packaging waste.

The third challenge taps designers and data miners to show the scale of the plastics pollution problem in a creative, intuitive way. The goal is to highlight both the breadth of the problemthe 270 pounds of plastic waste each American goes through each year, for exampleand the power of collective action. Four finalist teams will get to work with the National Geographic graphics team to fine-tune their visualizations, and one winner will take home a $10,000 prize.

There are many ways to chip away at the problem of plastic pollution. Some pushes come from inside the industry itself, like when companies cut back on packaging. Others come from regulations, like bans on straws or Styrofoam containers.

Another strategy? Open the conversation up so that anyone can throw their good idea into the hatand offer a prize for the best innovations.

FILE – In this Feb. 5, 2018 file photo, plastic bottles and other plastics including a mop, lie washed up on the north bank of the River Thames in London. European Union officials agreed on Wednesday, Dec. 19, 2018, to ban some single-use plastics, such as disposable cutlery, plates and straws, in an effort to cut marine pollution. The measure will also affect plastic cotton buds, drink stirrers, balloon sticks, and single-use plastic and polystyrene food and beverage containers. (AP Photo/Matt Dunham, File)

Its like a really big flashing beacon, or a balloon, sayinghey! Look over here! Heres what we care about. Now go out and solve it, saysFiona Murray, an expert on prizes and incentives at MIT.

There is a long and storied history of using prizes to solve big technical or environmental problems.

As late as the early 1700s, European sailors had a conundrum. They had figured out how to use the position of the sun, measured at noon, to pinpoint their exact latitude on the globe, so they could track how far north or south they had sailed. But they didnt have any way of measuring longitude,杭州西湖阁 so they had only the roughest of guesses about how far theyd gone east or west.

The British government set a reward of up to 20,000 British pounds (today, that would be about 3.4 million dollars) to anyone who could come up with some reliable way of determining longitude.

The most ocean-minded Europeans could not solve the problem: Not the captains or the boatbuilders or the scientists scratching out equations. The answer, instead, came from a clock builder named John Harrison, who built a clock that could keep precise track of time on the rocking decks of a ship. If sailors knew exactly what time it was on their ship, and the time at another place with a precisely known longitude, they could back out their own exact position.

Would the problem have been solved without Harrison? Eventually, saysReto Hofstetter, a management expert at the University of Lucerne in Switzerland. But the reward, or prize, incentivized him and many others to scheme and tinker in ways that sped up the discovery.

Big, complicated environmental issues like pollution rarely have an obvious fix either. But prizes can also work well to source creative solutions that may otherwise have gone un-invented.

Craig points to theWendy Schmidt Oil Cleanup Challenge, set after 2010sDeepwater Horizon oil spillin the Gulf of Mexico. Industrial cleanup companies proposed to use the same techniques theyd been using for years. But the organizers wondered if there was another solution, so they put out a $1.4 million prize for the best new ideas.

A team of young peoplewho would never have otherwise ended up working on this problem together, says Craigproposed a whole new strategy: Stuffing casings with absorbent material and using those to mop up the mess.

Michel hopes the new Ocean Plastic Innovation Challenge will spur similar creativity. The key point is to help these innovators, he says. We want to help them grow, develop their product, do great innovationand then go to market and get these ideas adopted by consumers.

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How do TIS emerge in the context of socio-technical transition pathways?

A system dynamics model that provides a cross-over between TIS and MLP.

Analyses of TIS dynamics through experimentation.

A research agenda, pursuable by means of the developed model.

Currently there is no formal model describing the dynamics of technological innovation systems. This paper develops a system dynamics model that integrates the concept of motors of innovation, following the literature on emerging technological innovation systems,杭州桑拿 with the notion of transition pathways that was developed as part of the multi-level-framework thinking. As such, the main contribution of this paper is a cross-over of two key-frameworks into a system dynamics model that can serve as underpinning for future research. The models behaviour is illustrated by means of analyses of TIS dynamics in the context of different transition pathways, under different resourcing conditions. The paper also provides a future research agenda, pursuable by means of experimentation and/or further development of the presented model.

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An electrocardiogram is known by the acronyms ECG or EKG more commonly used f thin-invasivpcedureo cdeltrical activitofh

MedicineNet does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.See additional information.

home/high blood pressure health center/high blood pressure a-z list/high blood pressure hypertension center/high blood pressure hypertension article

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Signs, Causes, Diet, and Treatment

What is high blood pressure? What is normal blood pressure?

What do blood pressure readings mean? (blood pressure readings chart)

What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

What is the treatment for high blood pressure?

What changes in diet help lower blood pressure naturally?

Can exercise help lower high blood pressure?

What alternative therapies help lower and mangage high blood pressure?

What alternative therapies help lower and mangage high blood pressure?

Medical Author:John P. Cunha, DO, FACOEP

John P. Cunha, DO, is a U.S. board-certified Emergency Medicine Physician. Dr. Cunhas educational background includes a BS in Biology from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, and a DO from the Kansas City University of Medicine and Biosciences in Kansas City, MO. He completed residency training in Emergency Medicine at Newark Beth Israel Medical Center in Newark, New Jersey.

Dr. Charles Pat Davis, MD, PhD,杭州西湖阁 is a board certified Emergency Medicine doctor who currently practices as a consultant and staff member for hospitals. He has a PhD in Microbiology (UT at Austin), and the MD (Univ. Texas Medical Branch, Galveston). He is a Clinical Professor (retired) in the Division of Emergency Medicine, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, and has been the Chief of Emergency Medicine at UT Medical Branch and at UTHSCSA with over 250 publications.

What is high blood pressure? What is normal blood pressure?

High blood pressurehypertension) is defined as high pressure (tension) in the arteries, which are the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Blood pressurereadings are given as two numbers:

systolic blood pressure (the top number)

equals the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts.

diastolic pressure (the bottom number)

is the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes.

Normal blood pressure is below 120/80.

In 2017, the American College of Cardiology released new guidelines forhigh blood pressure.

Blood pressure between 120/80 and 129/80 is elevated blood pressure, and a blood pressure of 130/80 or above is considered high.

The American Academy of Cardiology defines blood pressure ranges as:

Hypertensionstage 1 is 130-139 or 80-89 mm Hg, and hypertension stage 2 is 140 or higher, or 90 mm Hg or higher.

Complications of high blood pressure includeheart disease, kidney (renal) disease,hardening of the arteries(atherosclerosis orarteriosclerosis), eye damage, andstrokebrain damage).

Hypertension is a major public health problem. With the new guidelines for defining high blood presure, The American Heart Association estimates high blood pressure affects nearly half of all adults (46%) in the United States.

It is beneficial to add potassium to the diet. Studies show that people who consume more potassium have lower blood pressures. Good sources of potassium include:

Along with lowering salt in the diet, a balanced eating plan that also reduces cholesterol intake and fatty foods is recommended. The TLC Diet (Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes) often is recommended to lower blood cholesterol.

Blood pressure readings can vary in a single person throughout the day depending on the situation. Factors such asstressanxiety, foods eaten (caffeineor salt intake),smoking, orexercisecan cause pressure to rise.

The American Heart Association defines a normal blood pressure as less than 120/80. Elevated blood pressure ranges between 120/80 and 129/80, and high blood pressure is 130/80 and higher. Inpregnancynormal blood pressure should be below 120/80.

If your blood pressure reaches into the high range, you should see your doctor about lifestyle changes, and possibly medication especially if you have other risk factors, such asdiabetesorheart disease.

High blood pressure (for example, 180/110 or higher) may indicate an emergency situation. If this high blood pressure is associated withchest painshortness of breathheadachedizziness, or back orabdominal pain, seek medical care immediately. If you are experiencing no associated symptoms with a high blood pressure reading such as this, re-check it again within a few minutes and contact your doctor or go to an emergency room if it is still high.

If your blood pressure is lower than about 100/60 you may havelow blood pressure, depending on the associated symptoms. If you are unsure, check with your doctor.

High blood pressure may not have any symptoms and so hypertension has been labeled the silent killer. Longstanding high blood pressure can lead to multiple complications includingheart attackkidney disease, orstroke.

Some people experience symptoms with their high blood pressure. These symptoms include:

High Blood Pressure Slideshow Pictures

Lowering Blood Pressure Exercise Tips Pictures

The causes of hypertension are multifactorial, meaning there are several factors whose combined effects produce hypertension.

High salt intake or salt sensitivity: This occurs in certain populations such as the elderly, African Americans, people who areobese, or people with kidney (renal) problems.

Genetic predisposition to high blood pressure: People who have one or two parents with hypertension have high blood pressure incidence about twice as high as the general population.

A particular abnormality of the arteries, which results in an increased resistance (stiffness or lack of elasticity) in the tiny arteries (arterioles): This increased peripheral arteriolar stiffness develops in individuals who are also obese, do notexercise, have high salt intake, and are older.

Blood pressure is measured by a blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer). The blood pressure cuff consists of an air pump, a pressure gauge, and a rubber cuff. The instrument measures the blood pressure in units called millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

The cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated with an air pump to a pressure that blocks the flow of blood in the main artery that travels through the arm. The arm is held at the side of the body at the level of the heart, and the pressure of the cuff is gradually released. As the pressure decreases, a health practitioner listens with a stethoscope over the artery at the front of the elbow or an electronic machine senses the pulsation. The pressure at which the practitioner (or machine) first hears a pulsation from the artery is the systolic pressure (the top number). As the cuff pressure decreases further, the pressure at which the pulsation finally stops is the diastolic pressure (the bottom number).

To make an official diagnosis of high blood pressure you will need to see your doctor. Often your blood pressure will be checked on at least two different visits, at different times of the day. Your doctor may ask you to keep a blood pressure log for a short time in order to see your overall blood pressure trends. If your blood pressure is consistently over 134/80, your doctor will work with you to determine the best regimen for treating your high blood pressure.

Blood pressure is caused by many different factors, so there are many different treatments. The goal of treating high blood pressure is to keep the blood pressure below 134/80.

Treatments for high blood pressure include:

Eat a low-sodium, low-fatdietlike theDASH diet.

Medications: There are many different categories of blood pressure medications. Your doctor will work with you to find the right one. The main types include:

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

Angiotensin II Receptor (ARB) blockers

Treatment of underlying conditions that cause high blood pressure, such as:

to MedicineNets Heart Health Newsletter

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Dietary changes are often the first line of treatment recommended by your doctor. You may be advised to:

Doctors often recommend the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet created by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), which focuses on whole grains, fruits and vegetables, low-fat dairy, and lean meats.

In addition to dietary modification, quittingsmokingis extremely beneficial in managing high blood pressure.

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Can exercise help lower high blood pressure?

Exercise and physical activity helps lower blood pressure by helping you lose weight and keeping your heart and blood vessels in good condition.

Weight lossachieved through diet and exercise helps control factors such as bloodsugar, and other complications of obesity. Avoiding these complications helps lower blood pressure and prevent high blood pressure.

Consult your doctor before starting any new exercise program. Cardiovascular activities includingwalking, jogging, biking, orswimmingfor 30 to 45 minutes per day can help lower blood pressure.

Somecomplementary and alternative medicinestrategies can help you manage your high blood pressure and prevent it from becoming elevated further.

Use relaxation methods such as deepbreathing, imagery relaxation,yoga, meditation, and biofeedback.

Some home remedies, such asgarlic, coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10), calcium, magnesium,fish oil, andflaxseedhave been shown in studies to lower blood pressure. Consult your physician before taking anysupplements.

What alternative therapies help lower and mangage high blood pressure?

Somecomplementary and alternative medicinestrategies can help you manage your high blood pressure and prevent it from becoming elevated further.

Use relaxation methods such as deepbreathing, imagery relaxation,yoga, meditation, and biofeedback.

Some home remedies, such asgarlic, coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10), calcium, magnesium,fish oil, andflaxseedhave been shown in studies to lower blood pressure. Consult your physician before taking anysupplements.

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Signs, Causes, Diet, and Treatment Center

American College of Cardiology. 2017 Guideline for High Blood Pressure in Adults. 13 November 2017. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.

American Heart Association. About High Blood Pressure. Updated: Jan 22, 2013.

American Heart Association. High blood pressure redefined for first time in 14 years: 130 is the new high. Updated: Nov 13, 2017.

American Heart Association. Physical Activity and Blood Pressure. 11 Feb. 2014.

American Heart Association. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. 1 Mar. 2013.

Basile, J, MD. et al. Overview of hypertension in adults. UpToDate. Updated: Nov 17, 2017.

Mann, J. F. E., et al. Choice of therapy in primary (essential) hypertension. UpToDate. Updated: Sep 13, 2017.

NIH. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated? Updated: Sep 10, 2015.

NIH. Your Guide to Lowering Your Blood Pressure With DASH. Apr. 2006.Related ArticleSalt Quiz: Test Your Diet IQ

Salt or sodium is a vital part of a diet, but many people get too much. Too much sodium can cause high blood pressure and other problems. Learn about low sodium diets, low sodium diet, foods, guidelines & recipes.

Read more: Salt Quiz: Test Your Diet IQ

Have you changed your diet to try to bring down your high blood pressure?

Do you take medication to treat your high blood pressure?

What symptoms do you have from your high blood pressure?

Is your blood pressure reading high, low, or normal?

Do you know if genetic factors, high salt intake, or arterial stiffness caused your high blood pressure?

Top High Blood Pressure Hypertension Related Articles

Angina is chest pain due to inadequate blood supply to the heart. Angina symptoms may include chest tightness, burning, squeezing, and aching. Coronary artery disease is the main cause of angina but there are other causes. Angina is diagnosed by taking the patients medical history and performing tests such as an electrocardiogram (EKG), blood test, stress test, echocardiogram, cardiac CT scan, and heart catheterization. Treatment of angina usually includes lifestyle modification, medication, and sometimes, surgery. The risk of angina can be reduced by following a heart healthy lifestyle.

Atrial fibrillation (AF or AFib) is an abnormality in the heart rhythm which involves irregular and often rapid beating of the heart. Symptoms may include heart palpitations, dizziness, fainting, fatigue, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

Atrial fibrillation treatment may include medication or procedures like cardioversion or ablation to normalize the heart rate.

High cholesterol and triglyceride levels increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Getting your cholesterol and triglyceride levels in an optimal range will help protect your heart and blood vessels. Cholesterol management may include lifestyle interventions (diet and exercise) as well as medications to get your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides in an optimal range.

Cholesterol carried in particles of low density (LDL cholesterol) is referred to as the bad cholesterol because elevated levels of LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease. See a picture of Cholesterol and learn more about the health topic.

Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.

Diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. The two types of diabetes are referred to as type 1 (insulin dependent) and type 2 (non-insulin dependent). Symptoms of diabetes include increased urine output, thirst, hunger, and fatigue. Treatment of diabetes depends on the type.

What is a health screening? Why is it important to know your blood pressure? How long will your health screening take? Learn about wellness screenings for women for breast cancer, HIV, diabetes, osteoporosis, skin cancer, and more.

An electrocardiogram is known by the acronyms ECG or EKG more commonly used for this non-invasive procedure to record the electrical activity of the heart. An EKG generally is performed as part of a routine physical exam, part of a cardiac exercise stress test, or part of the evaluation of symptoms. Symptoms evaluated include palpitations, fainting, shortness of breath, dizziness, fainting, or chest pain.

Buildup of uric acid crystals in a joint causes gouty arthritis. Symptoms and signs include joint pain, swelling, heat, and redness, typically of a single joint. Gout may be treated with diet and lifestyle changes, as well as medication.

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Take this quiz and test your IQ of high blood pressure (hypertension), the cardiovascular disease that causes most strokes and heart attacks. How are dizziness, snoring, and gout related to HBP? Find the answer and learn how medical treatments and lifestyle adjustments fight this common problem.

Elevated homocysteine levels in the blood called hyperhomocysteinemia, is a sign that the body isnt producing enough of the amino acid homocysteine. is a rare and serious condition that may be inherited (genetic). People with homocystinuria die at an early age. Symptoms of hyperhomocysteinemia include developmental delays, osteoporosis, blood clots, heart attack, heart disease, stroke, and visual abnormalities.

There are other causes of hyperhomocysteinemia, for example, alcoholism.

Supplementing the diet with folic acid and possibly vitamins B6 and B12 supplements can lower homocysteine levels. Currently there is no direct proof that taking folic acid and B vitamins lower homocysteine levels and prevent heart attacks and strokes. Talk to your doctor if you feel you need to have your homocysteine blood levels checked.

Lap band (gastric banding) surgery, also referred to as laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is a surgical procedure in which an adjustable belt is placed around the upper portion of the stomach. Candidates for lap band surgery are generally individuals with a body mass index over 40 kg/m2, or are more than 45 kilograms over their ideal body weight. Side effects, risks, and complications from lap band surgery should be discussed with a surgeon or physician prior to the operation.

Trying to lower high blood pressure (hypertension)? Discover exercises good for lowering blood pressure, along with other lifestyle changes and medications to prevent high blood pressure.

MRI (or magnetic resonance imaging) scan is a radiology technique which uses magnetism, radio waves, and a computer to produce images of body structures. MRI scanning is painless and does not involve X-ray radiation. Patients with heart pacemakers, metal implants, or metal chips or clips in or around the eyes cannot be scanned with MRI because of the effect of the magnet.

Salty Foods can be everywhere. So how can you maintain a low-sodium diet and beware of the risks of high blood pressure which can lead to heart attack and stroke? Discover where high-sodium foods hide on supermarket shelves and restaurant menus. Learn to replace high-salt foods with better choices.


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Transplanting pig kidneys in human and other futuristic innovations to solve the organ shortage

There are 114,000 sick patients on the organ transplant list in the U.S., but about 8,000 people die every year waiting for the organs they need, according to data from the United Network for Organ Sharing.

Start-ups have invented new organ profusion machines to keep donor organs alive until surgery to reduce organ death and boost the number of organs available for transplant.

Scientists are using gene-editing techniques to make it possible to transplant pig kidneys in humans.

The Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville is doing stem cell research to develop ways to repair and regenerate damaged organs.

An employee carries an empty styrofoam box used for transporting human organs into an operation room.

Every year, tens of thousands of Americans wait in what they call medical purgatory for an organ transplant. In 2018 there were more than 36,529 organ transplants, a number that has risen by 20 percent over the last five years. However, there are far more sick patients waiting on the transplant list about 114,000 total, according to data from United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS), which serves as the national Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network under federal contract. Thats why an average of 8,000 people die every year waiting for the organs they need.

Now researchers, doctors and policymakers are exploring new strategies to increase the supply of organs needed to meet demand. Among the promising pursuits: advancing stem cell research in an effort to heal damaged organ tissue; developing biofabrication techniques in an effort to fast-track the 3D manufacturing of human organs, and using gene-editing techniques to find safe ways to use pig organs for human transplants.

The coordinated movement comes at a time of crisis in America. Rising obesity and diabetes rates is taking a toll on the human body. It is increasing the incidence of kidney disease and a form offatty liver disease known as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). These conditions typically lead to kidney and liver failure in people as young as 30. Even the pediatric population has been affected. For these individuals an organ transplant is their last hope.

Recognizing the trend, UNOS is looking for ways to widen the donor pool and improve the way organs are allocated for transplantation nationwide, said Dr. David Klassen, UNOS chief medical officer.

Right now it is rewriting distribution algorithms to improve the access of organs geographically. It is also exploring ways that would let transplant centers accept organ donations more quickly.

One strategy being used to address the immediate need is the use of living donors. Last year 19 percent of all transplant surgeries in the United States were from living donors, the highest in 12 years,杭州419 reports UNOS. In these surgeries donors give a portion of an organ (i.e. liver) or an entire organ such as a kidney to another person whose organ is no longer functioning properly.

Another is broadening the set of medical criteria for organ donations. For example, now hospitals are using livers that are infected with the hepatitis C virus in transplants and then curing patients of the disease with new drugs i.e. Harvoni, AbbVie and Sovaldi after surgery. There is even a UNOS-approved program at Johns Hopkins Comprehensive Transplant Center that transplants organs, such as livers and kidneys, from living donors infected with HIV to patients who already have the virus.

Stepping up to the challenge, a number of tech companies are working on devices and processes to better preserve and transport organs, said Elling Eidbo, CEO of the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations. As he explained, this is vitally important since many organs especially lungs and hearts get damaged or die in transport because of lack of blood supply, time limitations and geographical logistical challenges.

One company that has received FDA approval for a breakthrough device is TransMedics. The company received FDA approval in March for its Organ Care Lung System, the first portable device that maintains lungs in a near-physiologic state outside the body, addressing the limitations of cold storage used today. The machine is designed to replicate human functions as closely as possible so organs can be preserved for a longer period of time.

The process involves attaching the donated lungs to a ventilator, pump and filters. The lungs are maintained at normal body temperature and treated with a solution that contains nutrients, proteins and oxygen, which can reverse lung injury. The technology is being used especially to preserve lungs and hearts that typically have only up to six hours after recovery for use.

OrganOx, a U.K. start-up, has developed a similar machine that is being used to transport livers. The machine called the OrganOx metra device, maintains a livers normal body temperature and delivers oxygenated blood, anti-clotting drugs and nutrients to the organ for up to 24 hours. In a recent study funded by the European Commission, the device was used across seven European transplant centers and was shown to reduce tissue injury and improve quality assessment of organs prior to surgery.

The metra machine is a breakthrough since it allows doctors to monitor liver performance in real-time by providing continuous data on such parameters as blood flow, bile production and lactate clearance. In the future, the technology can open the door to further treatment of donor organs, since a longer transplant window could make time for drug or stem cell-based treatments.

The goal is to double the number of livers that can be used for transplants, said Dr. Constantin Coussios, co-founder of OrganOx and professor of biomedical engineering at the University of Oxford. The device that has won regulatory approval in Europe, India, Australia and Canada is now being tested in the U.S. in 15 transplant centers. Dr. Coussios hopes to get FDA approval by 2020 for usage of the machine in the United States.

It offers a way for doctors to test-drive an organ and reduce uncertainty about its viability for a patient, Dr. Coussios explained. It also gives the surgeon more time to find the appropriate recipient and plan surgeries. This reduces risk.

Recognizing how perfusion technology can help in organ assessment and repair before transplant surgery, the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, has forged an agreement with United Therapeutics for them to equip and operate a lung restoration facility by year-end. The facility, called Lung Bioengineering, will use ex vivo lung perfusion machines to assess and treat donor lungs prior to transplant.

We have already performed 11 lung transplants using this technology, said Dr. Burcin Taner, chairman of the department of transplantation at the Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville. In the past, many of these organs would have been deemed unusable organs because of edema, infection and other reasons. This is a great way to boost organ resources and do surgeries earlier, before patients become too sick for a transplant. It will service our center and other transplant centers in the Southeast.

The organizations also plan to work together on regenerative medicine research a game-changing field with the potential to heal damaged tissues and organs.

For two years the Mayo Clinic has been doing stem cell research to treat a host of conditions, including blood cancers.Now it is exploring ways to use stem cells to hea

l the brain after a hemorrhagic stroke and regenerate heart tissue and reduce transplant rejection.

Dr. Tushar Patel, dean of research at the Mayo Clinic, is pioneering a new kind of therapy that can be used for the repair and regeneration of organs. He has been exploring how nanoparticles known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from stem cells can be bioengineered to help in tissue repair.

EVs are routinely released from cells and play a central role in cell communication, sharing vital information such as RNA and proteins. We are looking at how the human body can use EV from stem cells to assist in tissue repair. This could create a whole new generation of cell-free therapies, said Patel.

Looking toward the future, scientists are working on breakthroughs that would have been unimaginable a decade ago.

One of the most promising areas is the field of xenotransplantation, or cross-species organ transplants. We are only one or two years away from clinical trials of modified kidney transplants from genetically modified pig models to humans, said UNOS Dr. Klassen.

Xenotransplantation is not entirely novel. Pig heart valves have been used for many years without ill effect and seldom elicit rejection. Some scientists believe whole organ transplants from genetically modified pigs are possible in the near future if immunological and physiological barriers can be overcome. The reason they are targeting this quick-breeding species is because they are anatomically similar to humans and can be gestated and grown for transplant in a relatively short period: six months.

Their goal is to create a future in which designer swine, raised in pathogen-free indoor farms, will serve as spare parts factories for ailing human bodies.

A pioneer in this field isDr. Joseph Tector, a surgeon-scientist and director of the University of Alabamas Birminghams Xenotransplant Program. He is busy trying to crack the code on how to place pig organs in human bodies. His goal is to overcome immune-system incompatibility and minimize rejection risk by using CRISPR gene-editing techniques to knock out any sugars on the surface of pig cells that will be attacked by human antibodies if the organs are transplanted into human patients. While a biotech start-upeGenesisis also developing technology in this field, Tector says his model is different in that it involves less gene editing of the genome.

We want to do as little gene editing as possible to reduce risk, Dr. Tector said. He explained that CRISPR gene editing can be imprecise, and sometimes it can clip DNA in the wrong spot, potentially wiping out tumor-suppression genes in pig donors or human recipients. The last thing we want is to suppress the immune system so much that it cannot fight infection.

Why is he dedicated to this approach? There has been a been a lot of rationing of human organs for transplant but that just determines who lives or who dies, Dr. Tector says. As the population grows we need new sources to meet demand.

Another strategy is to advance human organ and tissue manufacturing. This is the next frontier of medicine. Biofabrication is already a real concept getting close to market.

One company that is helping to turn this lofty goal into an eventual reality is Cellink. The Swedish-based start-up listed on the Nasdaq exchange claims it is the first bioink company in the world. It has created several different varieties of bioink materials that mimic the natural environment that cells grow in, and which can be mixed with living cells to create functional human tissues with a 3D printer.

The company has created the first community in the bioprinting field that includes 500 universities in 50 countries. The end goal is to enable organ printers in the future so these vital organs can be manufactured and transplanted, said Cellinks founder and CEO, Erik Gatenholm. Our hope is that it can be a reality in 10 to 15 years.

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Virgin Galactic Space-Flown Rocket Motor Donated to Smithsonian

The Virgin Galactic RocketMotorTwo that powered SpaceShipTwo on its Dec. 13, 2018, first flight into space has been donated to the National Air and Space Museum.

A rocket motor that powered a commercial passenger ship on its first flight into space will next be used to ignite public interest in the future of spaceflight as an artifact in the Smithsonians collection.

The National Air and Space Museum on Thursday (Feb. 7)received the donation of RocketMotorTwo, the engine that flew on Virgin Galactics SpaceShipTwo VSS Unity into space on Dec. 13, 2018. The motor will eventually be displayed in the Future of Spaceflight, a new gallery at the Washington D.C. museum scheduled to debut in 2024 as part of aseven-year renovationnow underway.

SpaceShipTwos rocket motor is an exciting addition to the national collection of milestone spaceflight artifacts, said Ellen Stofan, director of the National Air and Space Museum. It is a unique piece of history that represents a new era in space travel. [Photos: Virgin Galactics VSS Unity Soars to Space]

Designed and built by The SpaceShip Company, Virgin Galactics manufacturing sister company, RocketMotorTwo was confirmed by Guinness World Records as the most powerful hybrid rocket to be used in manned flight.On the Dec. 13, 2018 flight, test pilots Mark Forger Stucky and Frederick CJ Sturckow fired the engine for 60 seconds, propelling SpaceShipTwo to an altitude of 51.4 miles (82.7 kilometers), qualifying the crew members forFAA Commercial Astronaut wings.

The donated rocket motor, or, more specifically, the Case-Throat-Nozzle assembly, is part ofSpaceShipTwos hybrid propulsion system a design that combines the simplicity of a solid-fuel motor with the ability to control a liquid-propellant engine. RocketMotorTwo can be shut down quickly at any point during flight and has very few moving parts, resulting in what Virgin Galactic describes as a robust design for human spaceflight.

It does not just represent technical achievement, said Stofan about the hybrid engines donation. It is sure to also inspire our visitors by demonstrating what can be achieved through entrepreneurial innovation.

Virgin Galacticfounder Richard Branson joined Stofan and Enrico Palermo, the president of The Spaceship Company (TSC), to reveal the donation on Thursday.

Were proud to be making history as we work towards launching the worlds first commercial space line, and today we could not be more delighted to donate a piece of that history to the Smithsonians National Air and Space Museum for its wonderful new exhibition, Branson said in a statement. The desire to explore space has been an inspiration since time began and, in recent decades, an incredible catalyst for innovation.

I hope our donation will also play a small part in inspiring the thousands of visitors as they pass through the new gallery in years to come, Branson said.

RocketMotorTwo, which is approximately 15 feet (4.5 meters) long and weighs 1,500 lbs. (680 kilograms), will first go on display at the National Air and Space Museums Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center in Chantilly, Virginia, until such time the Future of Spaceflight gallery is ready.

This motor and its development process is a perfect example of what can be achieved when talented people come together to work on their dreams,杭州西湖阁 Palermo said in the same statement. TSC looks forward to building more rocket motors and the fleet of SpaceShipTwos, watching them provide the power to open space and change the world for good.

RocketMotorTwo is the second major artifact related to the development of SpaceShipTwo to enter the national collection. Since 2005, the National Air and Space Museumhas exhibited SpaceShipOne, the Scaled Composites suborbital spacecraft that served as the design basis for Virgin Galactics passenger craft.

To see this rocket go from concept, to production, through ground test, and finally into space, and then be accepted to the worlds most respected aerospace museum is a well-deserved recognition for the spaceship propulsion team, said George Whitesides, the CEO of The Spaceship Company and Virgin Galactic.

See more photos from the donationof Virgin Galactics RocketMotorTwo at collectSPACE.

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We now have a precise way to correct, replace or even delete faulty DNA.explains the science, the risks and what the future may hold

Mon 15 Jan 201806.00 GMTLast modified on Thu 29 Nov 201809.26 GMT

Scientists liken it to the find and replace feature used to correct misspellings in documents written on a computer. Instead of fixing words, gene editing rewrites DNA, the biological code that makes up the instruction manuals of living organisms. With gene editing, researchers can disable target genes,correct harmful mutations, and change the activity of specific genes in plants and animals, including humans.

Much of the excitement around gene editing is fuelled by its potential to treat or prevent human diseases. There are thousands of genetic disorders that can be passed on from one generation to the next; many are serious and debilitating. They are not rare: one in 25 children is born with a genetic disease. Among the most common are cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia and muscular dystrophy. Gene editing holds the promise of treating these disorders by rewriting the corrupt DNA in patients cells. But it can do far more than mend faulty genes. Gene editing has already been used tomodify peoples immune cells to fight canceror beresistant to HIV infection. It could also be used to fix defective genes in human embryos and so prevent babies from inheriting serious diseases. This is controversial because the genetic changes would affect their sperm or egg cells, meaning the genetic edits and any bad side effects could be passed on to future generations.

The agricultural industry has leapt on gene editing for a host of reasons. The procedure is faster, cheaper and more precise than conventional genetic modification, but it also has the benefit of allowing producers to improve crops without adding genes from other organisms something that has fuelled the backlash against GM crops in some regions. With gene editing, researchers have made seedless tomatoes, gluten-free wheat andmushrooms that dont turn brownwhen old. Other branches of medicine have also seized on its potential. Companies working on next-generation antibiotics have developed otherwise harmless viruses that find and attack specific strains of bacteria that cause dangerous infections. Meanwhile, researchers are using gene editing to makepig organs safe to transplant into humans. Gene editing has transformed fundamental research too, allowing scientists tounderstand precisely how specific genes operate.

There are many ways to edit genes, but the breakthrough behind the greatest achievements in recent years is a molecular tool called Crispr-Cas9. It uses a guide molecule (the Crispr bit) to find a specific region in an organisms genetic code a mutated gene, for example which is then cut by an enzyme (Cas9). When the cell tries to fix the damage, it often makes a hash of it, and effectively disables the gene. This in itself is useful for turning off harmful genes. But other kinds of repairs are possible. For example, to mend a faulty gene, scientists can cut the mutated DNA and replace it with a healthy strand that is injected alongside the Crispr-Cas9 molecules. Different enzymes can be used instead of Cas9, such as Cpf1, which may help edit DNA more effectively.

Genes are the biological templates the body uses to make the structural proteins and enzymes needed to build and maintain tissues and organs. They are made up of strands of genetic code, denoted by the letters G, C,杭州百花坊 T and A. Humans have about 20,000 genes bundled into 23 pairs of chromosomes all coiled up in the nucleus of nearly every cell in the body. Only about 1.5% of our genetic code, or genome, is made up of genes. Another 10% regulates them, ensuring that genes turn on and off in the right cells at the right time, for example. The rest of our DNA is apparently useless. The majority of our genome does nothing, says Gerton Lunter, a geneticist at the University of Oxford. Its simply evolutionary detritus.

What are all those Gs, Cs, Ts and As?

The letters of the genetic code refer to the molecules guanine (G), cytosine (C), thymine (T) and adenine (A). In DNA, these molecules pair up: G with C and T with A. These base pairs become the rungs of the familiar DNA double helix. It takes a lot of them to make a gene. The gene damaged in cystic fibrosis contains about 300,000 base pairs, while the one that is mutated in muscular dystrophy has about 2.5m base pairs, making it the largest gene in the human body. Each of us inherits about 60 new mutations from our parents,the majority coming from our father.

But how do you get to the right cells?

This is the big challenge. Most drugs are small molecules that can be ferried around the body in the bloodstream and delivered to organs and tissues on the way. The gene editing molecules are huge by comparison and have trouble getting into cells. But it can be done. One way is to pack the gene editing molecules into harmless viruses that infect particular types of cell. Millions of these are then injected into the bloodstream or directly into affected tissues. Once in the body, the viruses invade the target cells and release the gene editing molecules to do their work. In 2017, scientists in Texasused this approach to treat Duchenne muscular dystrophy in mice. The next step is a clinical trial in humans. Viruses are not the only way to do this, though. Researchers have used fatty nanoparticles to carry Crispr-Cas9 molecules to the liver, and tiny zaps of electricity to open pores in embryos through which gene editing molecules can enter.

Does it have to be done in the body?

No. In some of the first gene editing trials, scientists collected cells from patients blood, made the necessary genetic edits, and then infused the modified cells back into the patients. Its an approach that looks promising as a treatment for people with HIV. When the virus enters the body, it infects and kills immune cells. But to infect the cells in the first place, HIV must first latch on to specific proteins on the surface of the immune cells. Scientists have collected immune cells from patients blood and used gene editing to cut out the DNA that the cells need in order to make these surface proteins. Without the proteins, the HIV virus can no longer gain entry to the cells. A similar approach can be used to fight certain types of cancer: immune cells are collected from patients blood and edited so they produce surface proteins that bind to cancer cells and kill them. Having edited the cells to make them cancer-killers, scientists grow masses of them in the lab and infuse them back into the patient. The beauty of modifying cells outside the body is that they can be checked before they are put back to ensure the editing process has not gone awry.

Modern gene editing is quite precise but it is not perfect. The procedure can be a bit hit and miss, reaching some cells but not others. Even when Crispr gets where it is needed, the edits can differ from cell to cell, for example mending two copies of a mutated gene in one cell, but only one copy in another. For some genetic diseases this may not matter, but it may if a single mutated gene causes the disorder. Another common problem happens when edits are made at the wrong place in the genome. There can be hundreds of these off-target edits that can be dangerous if they disrupt healthy genes or crucial regulatory DNA.

The overwhelming effort in medicine is aimed at mending faulty genes in children and adults. But a handful of studies have shownit should be possible to fix dangerous mutations in embryos too. In 2017, scientists convened by the US National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine cautiously endorsed gene editing in human embryos to prevent the most serious diseases,but only once shown to be safe. Any edits made in embryos will affect all of the cells in the person and will be passed on to their children, so it is crucial to avoid harmful mistakes and side effects. Engineering human embryos also raises the uneasy prospect of designer babies, where embryos are altered for social rather than medical reasons; to make a person taller or more intelligent, for example. Traits like these can involve thousands of genes, most of them unknown. So for the time being, designer babies are a distant prospect.

How long before its ready for patients?

The race is on to get gene editing therapies into the clinic.A dozen or so Crispr-Cas9 trials are underway or planned, most led by Chinese researchers to combat various forms of cancer. One of the first launched in 2016, when doctors in Sichuan province gave edited immune cells to a patient with advanced lung cancer. More US and European trials are expected in the next few years.

A gentler form a gene editing that doesnt cut DNA into pieces, but instead uses chemical reactions to change the letters of the genetic code. It looks good so far. In 2017, researchers in China usedbase editingto mend mutations that cause a serious blood disorder called beta thalassemia in human embryos.

Engineered gene drives have the power to push particular genes through an entire population of organisms. For example, they could be used to make mosquitoes infertile and so reduce the burden of disease they spread. But the technology is highly controversial because it could have massive unintended ecological consequences.

Sometimes you dont want to completely remove or replace a gene, but simply dampen down or ramp up its activity. Scientists are now working on Crispr tools to do this, giving them more control than ever before.

A Crack in Creation:Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolutionby Jennifer Doudna and Samuel H. Sternberg

The Gene: An Intimate Historyby Siddhartha Mukherjee

The Epigenetics Revolution:How Modern Biology is Rewriting our Understanding of Genetics, Disease and Inheritanceby Nessa Carey

Modern Prometheus: Editing the Human Genome with Crispr-Cas9by Jim Kozubek


Ethical concerns raised as human embryonic gene editing continues in US

Frozen embryos. Credit: Ekaterina Georgievskaia/Shutterstock.

New York City, N.Y., Feb 1, 2019 / 04:01 pm (CNA/EWTN News).- A scientist at Columbia University in New York is conducting controversial gene-editing experiments on human embryos, according to a recent report from NPR.

Dieter Egli, a developmental biologist, is experimenting with CRISPR technology to edit genes in order to prevent certain hereditary genetic diseases and mutations, such as blindness or cystic fibrosis.

In his lab, Egli uses human ova and sperm, along with the CRISPR tool, to create genetically edited embryos.He told NPRthat the human embryos that he creates and edits are not allowed to develop beyond a day.

This kind of research is currently banned from receiving federal funding, but can be conducted using private funding. The Food and Drug Administration prohibits gene modification on viable human embryos, which means any genetically modified human embryos must be destroyed, rather than brought to term.

While Egli said that he wants to use the research to prevent diseases, some scientists worry about the ethical implications of such research if it were used haphazardly.

Already in China, a scientist has been condemned both by his university and by civil authorities for creating genetically modified babies, using CRISPR, for seven couples. Researcher He Jiankui claimed in November that these embryos had already resulted in the birth of a set of genetically modified twins, though there has been no independent confirmation of his claim.

In a letter signed by 120 Chinese scientists, He was condemned for ignoring ethical guidelines. The letter called the gene manipulation a Pandoras box, and said The biomedical ethics review for this so-called research exists in name only. Conducting direct human experiments can only be described as crazy.

Fyodor Urnov, associate director of the Altius Institute for Biomedical Sciences in Seattle, told NPR that he found it really disturbing that gene-editing research was continuing in the United States.

As weve learned from the events in China, it is no longer a hypothetical that somebody will just go ahead and go rogue and do something dangerous, reckless, unethical, Urnov says.

One of the biggest ethical concerns of the medical community regarding gene editing is that it could lead to the creation of designer babies and a society in which genetically modified people are seen as superior to genetically unedited people.

Anyone with a connection to the Internet will be able to download the recipe to make a designer baby, Urnov says. And then the question becomes: Whats to prevent them from using it? As we learned in the past year: apparently nothing.

Catholic bioethicists have previously raised serious concerns about gene-editing research and technology.

Fr. Tadeusz Pacholczyk, Director of Education for The National Catholic Bioethics Center, told CNA in 2017 that embryonic gene editing is morally objectionable because it treats very young humans…not as ends, but as mere means or research fodder to achieve particular investigative goals.

At the time, he was responding to news that a team of scientists at Oregon Health and Science University had used CRISPR to edit the genes of human embryos. While gene editing may have laudable goals, such as preventing diseases, the means of killing human embryos cannot justify those intrinsically evil ends,杭州夜网 he said.

Their value as human beings is profoundly denigrated every time they are created, experimented upon, and then killed. Moreover, if such embryos were to grow up, as will doubtless occur in the future, there are likely to be unintended effects from modifying their genes, Fr. Pacholczyk added.

While gene editing research is beginning to be explored and discussed in various countries throughout the world, most places have urged extreme caution and have laws in place that thus far prohibit genetically edited pregnancies.

Urnov told NPR that the research should be stopped until every ethical dilemma can be addressed.

We need to hit the pause button and keep it pressed until we understand how do we proceed in a way that minimizes the risk of people going rogue, Urnov says.

J. Benjamin Hurlbut, an associate professor of biology and society at Arizona State University, told NPR that he would also urge extreme caution for gene editing technologies.

If weve learned anything from whats happened in China, its that the urge to race ahead pushes science to shoot first and ask questions later, he told NPR. But this is a domain where we should be asking questions first. And maybe never shooting. Whats the rush?

Researchers in Oregon have announced that they have successfully altered genes in a human embryo…

Genetic editing of human embryos, even in special circumstances, ignores the complex ethical…

A Chinese scientist says he has created the first genetically edited babies, a claim that has…

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